An Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Plan is a method for utilizing structural, cultural, biological, and chemical controls in an organized manner that results in reduced usage of chemicals, selection of least toxic pesticides, more effective pest control, and decreased health and environmental concerns.


Applicable Regulations
40 CFR Parts 150-189.

State of Michigan Act 451 Part 83.


Overview of Procedure
An IPM plan helps the pesticide applicator to:

  • Conduct a site evaluation;
  • Identify the presence of insects or other potential pests;
  • Investigate if it has become a pest, and why;
  • Consider the various control methods that are available;
  • Determine which method is most appropriate;
  • Monitor and record results;
  • Evaluate effectiveness.

Any University of Michigan employee who applies pesticides as a part of their regular job responsibilities must be certified and/or registered in accordance with MDA Regulation R 285.636.


Waste Minimization Procedure
An IPM plan helps minimize the amount of pesticide necessary to provide satisfactory control by first considering the use of non-chemical controls:

1. Structural deficiencies:

  • Identify pest entry points and eliminate using barriers such as self-closing doors, screens, and other physical controls;
  • Minimize pest harborage by the use of heat, cold, light, electricity, desiccants, traps, and other mechanical controls;
  • Remove plants that attract pests, trim bushes, and remove excess mulch;
  • Identify and repair sources of moisture such as leaking roofs, pipes, etc.

2. Sanitation deficiencies:

  • Eliminate sources of food by keeping food preparation areas clean at all times and garbage disposed of in sealed containers;
  • Avoid moisture areas by keeping kitchens and bathrooms clean and dry.

3. Cultural controls:

  • Replace plants with more resistant varieties;
  • For landscaping, select plants that are compatible with local weather and soil conditions and resistant to common pests.

4. Biological controls:

  • Introduce species-specific parasitic and predatory insects or microorganisms to reduce or control a specific pest;
  • Use pheromones (chemical sex attractants secreted by special glands of one or both sexes of insect species) to attract pests to traps;
  • Use bird or bat houses at a specific location to attract birds or bats that will feed on pests.

When chemical controls are necessary, an IPM will guide the applicator in taking into account the following factors when selecting chemicals:

  • Active ingredients with the lowest practical toxicity to humans and non-target organisms; shortest practical persistence in the environment; and least potential for movement through the soil and contamination of groundwater;
  • Formulations (dust, spray, aerosol, granule, etc.) that are suitable for the application site, can effectively target the pest organism, and that can minimize the impact of the toxicant on humans and environment;
  • Application equipment and associated adjuvants (chemicals added to the tank mix to increase effectiveness or safety) that are appropriate for the application site;
  • Application techniques (crack and crevice, spot treatment, space spray, etc.) that can increase the effectiveness of the material while minimizing the impact of the product on humans and the environment.


Known Limitations
An IPM plan requires comprehensive knowledge and expertise of the pest and pesticide products, as well as knowledge of environmental factors and conditions. It also requires that the applicator and customer be willing to consider inspection, monitoring, preventive actions, and the use of various non-chemical controls as important parts of the program.


Safety & Health Precautions/Personal Protective Equipment
Follow all applicable safety and health protocols and regulations as established by your institution.


Despite its complexity, IPM ultimately saves time and money by lessening the pervasiveness of pests in the area of concern. An IPM plan increases the effectiveness of your pest management program while minimizing the amount of pesticide necessary to provide satisfactory control of pests. A properly planned and executed IPM plan will help the applicator recognize and appreciate the delicate balance of nature, while at the same time allow for introducing subtle changes to the environment in a manner that reduces the impact on people and nature.


None known.


Project Related Costs
Information not available.