Executive Summary
The University of Michigan (U-M) campus community is concerned with preserving a balance between protecting the health of people and the environment, while accommodating increasingly sophisticated and productive research operations. The faculty, staff, and students have demonstrated their commitment to the environment by developing and implementing pollution prevention (P2) projects in teaching and research laboratories, residence halls, and other functional areas of the University such as transportation and utilities. P2000: Pollution Prevention Programs at the University of Michigan is a compilation of the numerous P2 initiatives implemented on the U-M Ann Arbor campus. The manual was written to facilitate the exchange of P2 ideas among members of the U-M community, as well as other institutions involved in similar types of research and teaching activities.

A collaborative effort was essential to the planning, development, and successful implementation of all pollution prevention initiatives described in this manual. The U-M community demonstrated its commitment to the success of the projects through teamwork and open communication modeled after M-Quality (U-M's Total Quality Management program). The long-term focus of the P2000 project will be achieved through an emphasis on continuous improvement. This approach is invaluable to the success of any large-scale project of this nature.

P2000: Pollution Prevention Programs at the University of Michigan is segregated into the following topic specific sections, detailing a number of individual waste minimization initiatives within each:

Section 1 - RCRA Overview: During the developmental stages, it was determined that a summary of the hazardous waste regulations would be helpful to researchers and others on campus generating hazardous waste. Providing a basic understanding of regulatory requirements to those who may generate hazardous waste allows a proactive approach to pollution prevention to be taken during the course of daily research and other activities. For this reason, an overview of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) is provided in Section 1.

Section 2 - Chemical Waste in Laboratories: Contains numerous examples of hazardous and mixed waste reduction techniques being employed in research and teaching laboratories. Various analytical methods developed by the U-M Occupational Safety and Environmental Health (OSEH) Environmental Laboratory that resulted in P2 and waste minimization are also presented in this section.

Section 3 - Mercury Reduction: Details specific mercury-containing equipment substitutions with non-mercury containing environmentally friendly substitutes.

Section 4 - Energy Conservation: Contains information detailing proactive energy savings projects including the EPA Green Lights and Energy Star.

Section 5 - Grounds and Waste Management: Includes several individual sections on solid waste reduction, recycling efforts, and composting.

Section 6 - Pest Management: Details cutting-edge integrated pest management applications that utilize non-hazardous methods of controlling unwanted pests in the workplace.

Section 7 - Transportation Services: Includes information on the reuse and recycling of used coolants, engine oils, and spent solvents generated during performance and maintenance activities on U-M vehicles.

Section 8 - Recreational Sports and Athletics: Describes strategies and technologies used to provide maximum benefits with minimum environmental impacts from the various recreational and athletic facilities on campus. Information presented includes a computerized irrigation system for the U-M golf course water conservation, an ozonation system to disinfect swimming pool water, and composting of organic golf course debris.

Where possible, estimates of expenditures required to implement P2 projects have been provided within individual sections. Budgetary information is representative of actual costs incurred by U-M in calendar years 1996 and 1997. Costs associated with implementing similar projects may vary depending on the current economy and geographic location.

As a result of the University of Michigan's commitment supporting pollution prevention, waste minimization, energy conservation, and the efficient use of resources, several proactive P2 programs have been implemented throughout facilities, laboratories, classrooms, and recreational departments on the U-M campuses. In February 1996, the OSEH department focused P2 activities toward the implementation of three Supplemental Environmental Projects (SEPs), which were being performed in settlement of an enforcement action brought by the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ). The scope, schedule, budget, and logistics of implementing the SEPs were developed within a project titled P2000.

The focus of the three SEPs contained in P2000 is broad, and includes waste minimization and P2 programs that were implemented throughout the U-M campuses. The main objective of the SEPs has been to develop successful P2 methodologies, and through the development and dissemination of technology transfer materials, enable others to learn and implement successful projects of their own. This manual represents one of the significant technology transfer work products representing P2 activities performed within the SEPs. It also encompasses various waste minimization efforts being performed outside of the P2000 project at the U-M.

The manual is a dynamic tool that will grow with time as new P2 projects are implemented throughout the U-M. Updated sections and revisions will be distributed via the U-M OSEH Web site and Pollution Prevention Manual Web site www.p2000.umich.edu.

Please direct any questions to:

The University of Michigan
Department of Occupational Safety and Environmental Health
1239 Kipke Drive
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1010
Phone: (734) 647-1143


We thank the following authors and technical reviewers for their contributions to this manual.

James F. Roland

Sharon Minnick

Business Operations
Elizabeth H. Hall

Richard Giszczak
Jack Novodoff

Grounds and Waste Management
Erica M. Spiegel
Forestry Team

Mechanical Engineering and  Applied Mechanics
Marv Cressey

Mental Health Research Institute
Carolyn F. Bovenkerk
Eric D. Oezkan

Medical School
John Del Valle
Chris Dickinson
Susan Schonlaw-Finniss
Lidong Wang

Occupational Safety & Environmental Health
Terrance G. Alexander
Henry D. Baier
Pamela Barker
Thomas M. Bayones
Andrew K. Berki
Stuart Berry
Martha E. Breneiser
Timothy R. Cullen
Heath T. Downey
Michael L. Dressler
Mark L. Driscoll
Richard D. Dugan
Andrea K. Eisele
Janet M. Follo
Michael G. Hanna
Ken Keeler
Jon Lillemoen
Daniel Lyon
Mary Manor
Sandra S. Poszywak
Sudhakar G. Reddy
Lisa Stowe
Keith Trombley
Christopher VanWert
Patricia Watt
Jacqueline Whitney

Safety, Building and Environmental Management
Jennifer Carver
Marilyn Dietrich

Transportation Services
Pat Cunningham
Larry Koch

Utilities and Maintenance Services
Eric Albert
David B. Anderson
Yoshiko Hill
Donald Lystra
Michael Swanson
Steve Woldt